Mitochondria are the powerhouse of the cell. Distinctively, they contain their own DNA termed Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Each mammalian cell contains thousands of copies of mtDNA. When all copies within a cell are identical, the cell exists in a state known as “homoplasmy”. Sometimes, a mutation might occur in a copy of mtDNA. Because there […]


Mitochondria contain multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). When all copies are identical, the mitochondria is said to exist in “homoplasmy”. Sometimes, a copy of mtDNA has a variant (e.g. a C instead of a T). When variant mtDNA co-exists with wildtype mtDNA, the mitochondrion exists in a state known as “heteroplasmy”. If the level […]